#4──翻譯的經驗──A Translated Experience

English version at the bottom of this page

第一部分:創世記的記載

一、開始:第四章 翻譯的經驗

本章接下來的內容是五經中前十九節的希伯來語到英語的直接翻譯。62我很想從西奈蒂克法典 (Codex Sinaiticus) 開始直接翻譯63,但遺憾的是,該文本從創世記 21:26開始,而那是在我們想要的文本之後。目前,《東方法典》4445的照片仍然不可用。因此,Leningrad Codex和Alleppo Codex一起將作為我們的主要資源。

值得注意的是,在翻譯學派中,有八種方法可以進行文本的翻譯工作。逐字翻譯、字面翻譯、忠實翻譯、語義翻譯、適應性翻譯、自由翻譯、成語翻譯和交流性翻譯。我的翻譯將遵循更多的語義學翻譯,而你的詹姆士王聖經 (King James Bible) 將使用更多的字面翻譯類型,提供更多的描述性等價詞。64我將對專有名詞使用轉述或音譯65──這是一種借用技術。例如,當希臘文說:「Baptizo」,詹姆士王的譯者會使用「Baptize」,這聽起來很相似,但並不是實際的翻譯詞,它的字面意思是:「浸泡,或下沉,或跳入水下」。 66

為了顯示翻譯者的正確努力,我將未翻譯的字詞用黑體字標出,但我將把直譯放在每段文字的下方,供參考。這些專有名詞是我們研究中最重要的一些方面,我們必須開始理解它們。在可能的情況下,我忽略了希伯來語的分裂詞和語法規則,而專門翻譯了詞根。對希伯來語的語音和書寫規則的理解不是我們的主旨,但它可能在以後的時間裡發揮作用。作為一個經驗法則,本書不會考慮這種具體的問題。

第三天將作為創造的前四天中的一個反常現象(在我們心中)說出來。在我看來,在整個地球上創造所有的植物,這多少有點倒退。當然,上帝從來沒有徵求過我的同意,一定有它的原因。我可能永遠不知道為什麼祂選擇創造胡蘿卜而不是水星,但我既不在這裡也不在那裡質疑我的創造者。一定是有原因的──靠著神的恩典,希望有一天能向我揭示。因此,11-13節沒有顯示任何額外的翻譯工作,因為在我們的研究中不需要它。然而, 關於第三天有一個小項目需要特別注意。值得注意的是,所有的海洋植物都包括在內,因為神並不是只在Erets Yabbashah(旱地)上播種,而是在所有的Erets(陸地)上播種。一個包羅萬象的世界範圍的花束,無論是在水面上還是在水中。

來自中國天主教聖經,它說這是「以色列人的宇宙觀」(平地球說)

創世記 1—[關鍵詞音譯,按日翻譯,詩句形式]

1 一開始,以羅欣 (Elohim) 創造了 沙瑪伊姆 (Shamayim)厄雷特 (Erets)

2 厄雷特 (Erets) 亂糟糟的,空蕩蕩的,在 瑪伊姆 (Mayim) 的表面上很黑暗。但以羅欣 (Elohim) 的靈在所有 瑪伊姆 (Mayim) 的表面上休息。

3 以羅欣 (Elohim) 說:「要有 歐威爾 (Owr)!」於是就有了 歐威爾 (Owr)

4 以羅欣 (Elohim) 看見 歐威爾 (Owr),它是好的。於是,以羅欣 (Elohim)歐威爾 (Owr)喬舍克 (Choshek) 之間滑動了一個空間。

5 以羅欣 (Elohim)歐威爾 (Owr):「約姆 (Yom)」,喬舍克 (Choshek) 祂叫:「萊爾 (Lel)」。那是一天的第一個早晨。

Elohim=上帝,或統一的神格,作為複數形式。
Shamayim
=天,地上萬物的複數。
Erets
= 土,或土地,或泥土。
Mayim
= 特定區域的水。這個水,或那個水。
Mayims
=水,如──所有形式的水,在所有有水的地方。
Owr
= 光。沒有形式的純光。照明的科學理念。
Choshek
=黑暗。沒有光的地方。沒有被照亮。與光分離。
Yom
=日光或日。一個「時間」或「季節」或整個單位的「部分」。
Lel
= 黑夜,從光亮中沒有白天的地方。與日光分開。

6 以羅欣 (Elohim)說:「要在 瑪伊姆 (Mayim) 的中間有 拉基亞 (Raqia)。讓它在 瑪伊姆 (Mayim) 和其他 瑪伊姆 (Mayim) 之間劃分出一個空間。」

7 於是 以羅欣 (Elohim) 造了 拉基亞 (Raqia),並在 拉基亞 (Raqia) 下面的塔恰瑪伊姆 (Tachath Mayim) 和 拉基亞 (Raqia) 上面的 米爾.瑪伊姆 (Meal Mayim) 之間劃分了一個空間。於是就這樣了。

8 於是,以羅欣 (Elohim) 就稱 拉基亞 (Raqia)沙瑪伊姆 (Shamayim),那是第二天的晚上和早晨。

Elohim=上帝,或統一的神格,作為複數形式。
Raqia
= 蒼穹。一片廣闊的空間。事物之間的一個薄薄的盾牌。
Mayim
= 特定區域的水。這個水,或那個水。
Tachath
= 在下面,在下面,在下面。
Tachath Mayim
= 下面的水。深處。
Meal
= 上面,上面。在上面。
Meal Mayim
= 上面的水。 上方的水。
Shamayim
=天,地上萬物的複數。

9 以羅欣 (Elohim) 說:「要把 瑪伊姆 (Mayim) 聚集在 沙瑪伊姆 (Shamayim) 之下,在一個地方,要在那裡出現 厄雷特.雅巴沙 (Erets Yabbashah) !」

10 以羅欣 (Elohim)厄雷特.雅巴沙 (Erets Yabbashah)沙瑪伊姆 (Shamayim) 聚集的地方為:「沙瑪伊姆 (Shamayim)。」以羅欣 (Elohim) 看到它是好的。

Elohim=上帝,或統一的神格,作為複數形式。
Mayim
s = 水,在所有形式的水,在所有有水的地方。
Shamayim
=天,地上萬物的複數。
Erets Yabbashah
= 旱地,水面上的土地。泥土,不在水中。
Erets
= 土,或土地,或泥土。

11 以羅欣 (Elohim) 說:「讓 厄雷特 (Erets) 長出草來,長出結籽的藥草,長出按種類結果的樹木,其種子在 厄雷特 (Erets) 各處。」事情就這樣發生了。

12 厄雷特 (Erets) 帶出草木,按著它們的種類結出種子,按著它們的種類結出種子在它們裡面的果實。以羅欣 (Elohim) 看這是好的。

13 又是晚上和早晨:第三天。

Elohim=上帝,或統一的神格,作為複數形式。
Erets
= 土,或土地,或泥土。

14 以羅欣 (Elohim) 說:「在 沙瑪伊姆 (Shamayim)比基亞 (Birqia),要有梅爾斯 (Meors),在 約姆 (Yom) 和 萊爾 (Lel) 之間隔開一個空間,讓它們成為徵兆、季節、日子和年份。

15 讓他們在 沙瑪伊姆 (Shamayim)比基亞 (Birqia)梅爾斯 (Meors),在 厄雷特 (Erets) 發出光亮。」於是就這樣了。

16 於是,以羅欣 (Elohim) 造了兩個 加多爾梅爾斯 (Gadol Meors)。加多爾梅爾 (Gadol Meor) 管理 約姆 (Yom),卡塔爾梅爾 (Qatan Meor)管理 萊爾 (Lel)。然後祂也造了科卡布斯 (Kokabs)。

17 以羅欣 (Elohim) 把他們都安置在 沙瑪伊姆 (Shamayim)比基亞 (Birqia),給 厄雷特 (Erets) 照明。

18 統治 約姆 (Yom) 萊爾 (Lel),並在 歐威爾 (Owr)喬舍克 (Choshek) 之間劃分出一個空間。以羅欣 (Elohim) 看這是好的。

19 這就是第四天的晚上和早晨。

Elohim=神,或統一的神格,作為複數形式。
Meors
= 發光體。明亮閃耀的燈光。
Birqia
=打出的范圍。廣闊的范圍。擴展的表面。
Shamayim
=天,地上萬物的複數。
Yom
=日光或日。一個 “時間 “或 “季節 “或整個單位的 “部分”。
Lel
= 夜晚,在那裡沒有Yom從Owr。與白天分開。
Erets
= 明顯的:土,或土地,或泥土。
Gadol
=統治者,更偉大的人。
Gadol Meors
= 偉大的發光體。比其他任何人都大。一套。
Gadol Meor
= 更大的發光體,具體而言。
Qatan
= 較小的。第二個。
Qatan Meor
= 次要的發光體,較小的發光體。
Kokabs
=星星。滾動的、燃燒的東西。圓圓的,亮亮的。Owr = 光。沒有形式的純光。照明的科學理念。
Choshek
=黑暗。沒有光。不被照亮。與光分離。

創世記1—[關鍵詞音譯,引文刪除,段落形式]

在開始時,以羅欣 (Elohim) 創造了沙瑪伊姆 (Shamayim)厄雷特 (Erets)厄雷特 (Erets) 是混亂和空虛的,它在 瑪伊姆 (Mayim) 的表面是黑暗的。但是以羅欣 (Elohim)的靈卻停留在所有 瑪伊姆 (Mayim) 的表面。以羅欣 (Elohim) 說:「要有 歐威爾 (Owr)!」於是有了 歐威爾 (Owr)以羅欣 (Elohim) 看到了 歐威爾 (Owr)。它是好的。然後 以羅欣 (Elohim)歐威爾 (Owr)喬舍克 (Choshek) 之間滑動了一個空間,以羅欣 (Elohim)歐威爾 (Owr):「約姆 (Yom)」,而 喬舍克 (Choshek) 被稱為:「萊爾 (Lel)」,這就是一天的第一個早晨。

以羅欣 (Elohim) 說:「在 瑪伊姆 (Mayim) 的中間要有 拉基亞 (Raqia)。讓它在 瑪伊姆 (Mayim) 和其他 瑪伊姆 (Mayim) 之間劃分出一個空間。於是,以羅欣 (Elohim) 造了 拉基亞 (Raqia),在 拉基亞 (Raqia) 下面的 塔恰瑪伊姆 (Tachath Mayim)拉基亞 (Raqia) 上面的 米爾.瑪伊姆 (Meal Mayim) 之間劃分出一個空間。就是這樣。於是,以羅欣 (Elohim)拉基亞 (Raqia) 為 「沙瑪伊姆 (Shamayim)」。這就是第二天的晚上和早晨。

以羅欣 (Elohim) 說:「要把 瑪伊姆斯 (Mayims) 聚集在 沙瑪伊姆 (Shamayim) 之下的一個地方,讓那裡出現 厄雷特.雅巴沙 (Erets Yabbashah)!」以羅欣 (Elohim)厄雷特.雅巴沙 (Erets Yabbashah)沙瑪伊姆 (Shamayim) 聚集的地方,祂稱:「沙瑪伊姆 (Shamayim)」,以羅欣 (Elohim) 看到它是好的。以羅欣 (Elohim) 就說:「讓 厄雷特 (Erets) 結出草,結出種子的草藥和按種類結出果實的樹木,其種子在 厄雷特 (Erets) 各處。」事情就這樣發生了。厄雷特 (Erets) 就長出草來,按其種類結出種子,按其種類結出果實,以羅欣 (Elohim) 說:這是好的。到了晚上和早晨:第三天。

以羅欣 (Elohim) 說:「要在 沙瑪伊姆 (Shamayim)比基亞 (Birqia) 中有 梅爾斯 (Meors),在 約姆 (Yom) 和 萊爾 (Lel) 之間隔開一個空間,讓它們成為徵兆、季節、日子和年份。讓它們在沙瑪伊姆 (Shamayim)比基亞 (Birqia) 中成為 梅爾斯 (Meors),在 厄雷特 (Erets) 上提供光亮。」事情就這樣發生了。然後,以羅欣 (Elohim) 製造了兩個 加多爾梅爾斯 (Gadol Meors)加多爾梅爾 (Gadol Meor) 負責管理 約姆 (Yom)卡塔爾梅爾 (Qatan Meor) 負責管理 萊爾 (Lel)。然後,祂也造了 科卡布斯 (Kokabs)以羅欣 (Elohim) 把他們都安置在 沙瑪伊姆 (Shamayim)比基亞 (Birqia),給 厄雷特 (Erets) 帶來光明。治理 約姆 (Yom)萊爾 (Lel),並在 歐威爾 (Owr)喬舍克 (Choshek) 之間劃分出一個空間。以羅欣 (Elohim) 看這是好的。這就是第四日的晚上和早晨。

62 就是說。 塔納赫(Tanakh)的前五本書,以色列人也稱之為:「律法」。

63 請在以下網址查看整個收藏。CodexSinaiticus.org

64 Newmark, P. (1988a).A Textbook of Translation.Hertfordshire:Prentice Hall.

65 Harvey, M. (2003).法律翻譯的初級課程。

66 Βάπτισμα Strong’s Concordance, Greek #908

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Part One: The Genesis Account

I: The Beginning──Chapter 4: A Translated Experience

What follows in this chapter is a direct Hebrew to English translation available of the first nineteen verses in the Pentateuch.1 I would love to start directly translating from the Codex Sinaiticus2, but sadly that text starts at Genesis 21:26, and that is well after our desired text. At this time, the photographs of the Codex Orientales 4445 remain unavailable. Therefore, the Leningrad Codex and the Alleppo Codex together will serve as our main resources.

It is important to note, that in the schools of translation, there are eight ways to go about the act of translating a text. Word-for-word, Literal, Faithful, Semantic, Adaptive, Free, Idiomatic, and Communicative. My translation will follow a more Semantic translation whereas your King James Bible will use a more Literal translation type which gives a more Descriptive Equivalent of the word.3 I will use Transference or Transliteration for Proper Nouns4 – This is a borrowing technique. E.g. when the Greek would say: “Baptizo” the King James translators would use “Baptize” which sounds similar, but is not the actual translated word which is literally the action of: “To Dip, or To Sink, or To Plunge Under.”5

In my attempts to show correct translator efforts, I have marked the words that have been left untranslated in bold, but I will have placed the direct translation at the bottom of each passage for reference. These proper nouns are some of the most important aspects of our study and It is imperative that we begin to understand them. Where possible, I have ignored Hebrew splinter words and grammar rules and translated the root word specifically. The understanding of Hebrew rules of speech and writing is not our main thrust, but it may come into play at a later time. As a rule of thumb, this book will not contemplate such specifics.

Day three will speak out as somewhat of an anomaly (in our minds) in the first four days of creation. The creation of all flora over all the earth is, to me, somewhat backwards. Of course, God never asked me for my permission, and must have it there for a reason. I may never know why He chose to create Carrots over Mercury, but it is neither here nor there for me to question my Creator. There must be a reason – and by the grace of God, may it one day be revealed to me. Therefore, verses 11-13 do not show any additional translation work, because it is not needed in our study. There is one small item to note about day three specifically however. It is interesting to note of the inclusion of all oceanic flora, as God does not plant seeds on Erets Yabbashah (Dry Land) only, but on all of Erets (Land). An all-inclusive, world-wide bouquet, both out of, and in the water.

From a Chinese Catholic Bible, it said “this is the Israelis view of the world” (the flat earth)

Genesis 1 —[Key words transliterated, translations by day, verse form]

  1. At the start, Elohim created Shamayim and Erets.
  2. And Erets was messy and empty and it was dark on the surface of Mayim. But The Spirit of Elohim rested on the surface of all the Mayims.
  3. And Elohim said: “Let there be Owr!” and there was Owr.
  4. And Elohim saw Owr. It was good. Then Elohim slid a space between Owr and Choshek,
  5. and Elohim called Owr: “Yom” and Choshek he called “Lel,” and that was the day’s first morning.

Elohim = God, or the unified Godhead, as a plural form.
Shamayim
= Heavens, the plurality of all things above earth.
Erets = earth, or land, or dirt.
Mayim
= Water in a specific area. This water, or that water.
Mayims
= Water, as in – all forms of water, in all places where water
Owr =
Light. Pure light without form. The scientific idea of illumination.
Choshek
= Dark. The absence of light. Not illuminated. Separated from light.
Yom
= Daylight or Day. A “time” or “season” or “part” of a whole unit.
Lel
= The night, where there is no day from light. Separated from daylight.

  1. And Elohim said: “Let there be the Raqia in the middle of Mayim. Let it divide a space between Mayim from the other Mayim.
  2. So Elohim made the Raqia and divided a space between Tachath Mayim under the Raqia and the Meal Mayim which were above the Raqia. And so it was.
  3. So then Elohim called the Raqia: Shamayim and that was evening and morning on the second day.

Elohim = God, or the unified Godhead, as a plural form.
Raqia
= The firmament. An expanse. A thin shield between things.
Mayim
= Water in a specific area. This water, or that water.
Tachath
= Under, underneath, below.
Tachath Mayim
= The Waters below. The Deep.
Meal
= Above, over. On top.
Meal Mayim
= The Waters above. The Overwaters.
Shamayim
= Heavens, the plurality of all things above earth.

  1. And Elohim said: “Be gathered Mayims under Shamayim at one place and let there appear Erets Yabbashah!”
  2. And Elohim called Erets Yabbashah and where the Shamayim gathered He called: ‘The Shamayim’ and Elohim saw that it was good.

Elohim = God, or the unified Godhead, as a plural form.
Mayims = Water, in all forms of water, in all places where water is.
Shamayim = Heavens, the plurality of all things above earth.
Erets Yabbashah = Dry land, above water land. Dirt, not in water.
Erets = earth, or land, or dirt.

  1. And Elohim said: “Let Erets bring forth grass, herbs that yield seeds and trees that yield fruit according to their kind, whose seeds are in it all over Erets.” And so it was.
  2. And Erets brought forth grass plants that yield seed according to their kind, yielding fruit whose seed is in them according to their kind and Elohim saw that it was good.
  3. And were evening and morning: the third day.

Elohim = God, or the unified Godhead, as a plural form.
Erets = earth, or land, or dirt.

  1. And Elohim said: “Let there be Meors in the Birqia of the Shamayim to separate a space between Yom and Lel and let them be for signs and seasons and days and years.
  2. And let them be for Meors in the Birqia of the Shamayim to give light on Erets.” And so it was.
  3. Then Elohim made two Gadol Meors. The Gadol Meor to govern the Yom and the Qatan Meor to govern the Lel. Then He made Kokabs too.
  4. And Elohim set them all in the Birqia of the Shamayim to give light to Erets.
  5. And to rule over Yom and over Lel and to divide a space between Owr from Choshek. And Elohim saw that it was good.
  6. And that was the evening and the morning, day four.

Elohim = God, or the unified Godhead, as a plural form.
Meors = Luminaries. Bright Shining lights.
Birqia = The beaten out spread. The expanse. The extended surface.
Shamayim = Heavens, the plurality of all things above earth.
Yom = Daylight or Day. A “time” or “season” or “part” of a whole unit.
Lel = The night, where there is no Yom from Owr. Separated from daylight.
Erets = Plainly: earth, or land, or dirt.
Gadol = The one to rule, the greater one.
Gadol Meors = The great luminaries. Greater than any other. A set.
Gadol Meor = The greater luminary, specifically.
Qatan = The lesser. The second.
Qatan Meor = The secondary luminary, the lesser luminary.
Kokabs = Stars. Rolling, burning things. Round and shiny.
Owr = Light. Pure light without form. The scientific idea of illumination.
Choshek = Dark. The absence of light. Non illuminated. Separated from light.

Genesis 1—[Key words transliterated, cites removed, paragraph form]

At the start, Elohim created Shamayim and Erets. And Erets was messy and empty and it was dark on the surface of Mayim. But The Spirit of Elohim rested on the surface of all the Mayims. And Elohim said: “Let there be Owr!” and there was Owr. And Elohim saw Owr. It was good. Then Elohim slid a space between Owr and Choshek, and Elohim called Owr: “Yom” and Choshek he called “Lel,” and that was the day’s first morning.

And Elohim said: “Let there be the Raqia in the middle of Mayim. Let it divide a space between Mayim from the other Mayim. So Elohim made the Raqia and divided a space between Tachath Mayim under the Raqia and the Meal Mayim which were above the Raqia. And so it was. So then Elohim called the Raqia: Shamayim and that was evening and morning on the second day.

And Elohim said: “Be gathered Mayims under Shamayim at one place and let there appear Erets Yabbashah!” And Elohim called Erets Yabbashah and where the Shamayim gathered He called: ‘The Shamayim’ and Elohim saw that it was good. And Elohim said: “Let Erets bring forth grass, herbs that yield seeds and trees that yield fruit according to their kind, whose seeds are in it all over Erets.” And so it was. And Erets brought forth grass plants that yield seed according to their kind, yielding fruit whose seed is in them according to their kind and Elohim say that it was good. And were evening and morning: the third day.

And Elohim said: “Let there be Meors in the Birqia of the Shamayim to separate a space between Yom and Lel and let them be for signs and seasons and days and years. And let them be for Meors in the Birqia of the Shamayim to give light on Erets.” And so it was. Then Elohim made two Gadol Meors. The Gadol Meor to govern the Yom and the Qatan Meor to govern the Lel. Then He made Kokabs too. And Elohim set them all in the Birqia of the Shamayim to give light to Erets. And to rule over Yom and over Lel and to divide a space between Owr from Choshek. And Elohim saw that it was good. And that was the evening and the morning, day four.

Footnotes

1 That is to say: The first five books of the Tanakh, what Israel also calls: “The Law.”

2 Please see the entire collection at: CodexSinaiticus.org

3 Newmark, P. (1988a). A Textbook of Translation. Hertfordshire: Prentice Hall.

4 Harvey, M. (2003). A beginner’s course in legal translation.

5 Βάπτισμα Strong’s Concordance, Greek #908

──Biblical Cosmology by Pauly Hart
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