#21──大光和小光──The Greater and Lesser Light

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第二部分:可見的創造系統

四、天體:第二十一章 大光和小光

我們稱他們為 Sol 和 Luna──太陽和月亮。它們在其他文化中另有其名,也有專門崇拜它們的宗教。但正如以羅欣.耶和華 (Elohim YHVH) 在創世記中對它們的稱呼,我更願意稱它們為「大光」和 「小光」。我敢肯定… 它們定可能有更合適的名字。上帝給了它們一個相當大的工作,所以祂要給他們命名,對嗎?當然了!詩篇89篇的作者以探說:「月亮」就像他同時代的人、歷史學家和他之後的人所說的稱為:”Yah-wrea-achk “或 “yaw-ray’-akh “或 “yareach “或 “יָרֵחַ”   。我之所以提起以探,只是因為他沒有得到足夠的表揚,真的。另外,就像希幔一樣,他也是偉大的聖經作家殿堂中的小人物之一。 294

在約伯記中提到了太陽,這真是有趣。比勒達以它正確的名稱來稱呼它:「舍麥什」(Shemesh) 295,而約伯則稱之為「光」296 和「瘙癢」297 。似乎當約伯在哀歎他生命的位份時,這大光就顯得令人懊惱了。而撒母耳在寫士師記時,也同樣的把太陽稱之為「瘙癢」298,我仍然覺得這的確很有趣299。但且讓我們再深入挖掘一下,不僅僅是趣味性那樣,而更大的問題是,這些可見的創造系統宣告了上帝的傑作。300 祂的威嚴是勢不可擋的、太陽是無法抗拒的。而從字面上來看,太陽就在我們的頭頂上方,傳道書有超過 25 次這樣告訴我們 301 。除了穹蒼之外,太陽的力量很大,我想不出還有什麼有形的東西能有如此大的力量。水、天空、大地都無法與太陽的驚人力量相提並論,它太奇妙了!人們稱之為「地球上最近的恆星」,但我稱它為「唯一的大光」。天上沒有像「舍麥什」(Shemesh) 那樣大的星辰,它只管晝,就像「亞力克」(Yareach) 管夜一樣。「日有日的榮光、月有月的榮光、星有星的榮光.這星和那星的榮光、也有分別。」 302

當耶和華為以色列人與基遍爭戰時,約書亞有能力掌管日月。「當耶和華將亞摩利人交付以色列人的日子、約書亞就禱告耶和華、在以色列人眼前說、日頭阿、你要停在基遍.月亮阿、你要止在亞雅崙谷。於是日頭停留、月亮止住、直等國民向敵人報仇.這事豈不是寫在雅煞珥書上麼.日頭在天當中停住、不急速下落、約有一日之久。 」303 這樣,遵行主旨意的主的工人,是可以有能力去掌管這兩個物體。因為耶和華已在爭戰中為他們爭戰了304,祂賜人管理這大地的權柄305。約書亞只相信上帝的話,看看結果如何──不僅僅太陽靜止不動,月亮也是如此。

後來,在希西家王統治時期,以賽亞去找他,就他的惡行與他面對面。希西家痛哭流淚,以賽亞說:「我耶和華必成就我所說的、我先給你一個兆頭.就是叫亞哈斯的日晷、向前進的日影往後退十度.於是前進的日影、果然在日晷上往後退了十度。」306 根據經文所記錄的,大地並沒有移動,但太陽的影子在日晷上往後退了十步,太陽往後退是因以賽亞向上帝的請求。這兩個記錄都令人震驚,以至於有人認為它們是僥幸和誤解。但為什麼每個實例都被記錄了兩次呢呢?約書亞想確保我們理解這一點,並說這都寫在雅煞珥書上,而且的確在雅煞珥書上88:63-64中發現這記錄。 307

儘管雅煞珥書從未被納入新教聖經的正典…事實上,整部作品也從未被完整地發現過…然而,它卻成了一個極大的歷史好奇性。因此,即使我們以「欠缺兩個或更多的見證人,而不符合聖經」的條件來反駁它,我們也不能說日影沒有為希西家往後退,因為這在以賽亞書和列王紀下第20章9-11節都再次告訴我們這個故事:「以賽亞說、耶和華必成就他所說的:『你要日影在樓梯上向前進十步呢、是要往後退十步呢? 』希西家回答說:『日影向前進很正常,但它怎麼能往後退呢?』以賽亞禱告,耶和華使日影在為亞哈斯王建造的樓梯上往後退十步。」308

這些由上帝所創造的大光和小光,都服從人的命令,這真是個奇蹟。但這不是事情的全部,只是讓我們把它放在一邊,好發現太陽和月亮是在這個大地之上的,因而我們必須確定太陽在大地之上,並且在任何時候,都在大地之上──這是一個相應的想法,就是太陽在大地之上,大地並不旋轉好讓一方去迎面太陽,而另一方的頭頂上卻不見太陽。上帝在以西結書第32章第7節向我們談到了太陽,就是關於埃及可怕的預言:「(我必)以密雲遮掩太陽、月亮也不放光。」309 不僅月亮不放光,太陽也被密雲遮掩。你可能會錯過這點──月亮,發出她自己的光──讓我趕緊補充一下:月亮不放光是個奇蹟,因為月亮有她自己的光,不是反射太陽的光310我一直以來都被教導說,月亮反射太陽的光。但正如聖經教導我們的, 月亮被稱為「小光」是有原因的,它並不是「小鏡子」。

294詩篇 88:1a 詩人希幔寫了一首非常酷的詩,可拉後裔把它放進一些舞曲中。這是一個真實的故事。在第11節中包含了一個詞,會在本書的後面再提起,或許是在第32章。

295 約伯記8:16

296 約伯記31:26

297 約伯記9:7

298 士師記 8:13, 14:18

299 更多有關我對這名字的趣味性,請見第八章。

300 詩篇19:1

301傳道書 1:3, 1:9, 1:14, 2:11, 2:17, 2:18, 2:19, 2:20, 2:22, 3:16, 4:1, 4:3, 4:7, 4:15, 5:13, 5:18, 6:1, 6:12, 8:9, 8:15, 8:17, 9:3, 9:6, 9:9, 9:11, 9:13, 10:5

302 哥林多前書15:41

303 約書亞記10:12-13

304 約書亞記10:11b 「耶和華從天上降大冰雹在他們身上、〔冰雹原文作石頭〕直降到亞西加、打死他們.」

305 創世記1:28a 「神就賜福給他們、又對他們說、要生養眾多、遍滿地面、治理這地…」

306 以賽亞書38章7-8節

307雅煞珥書 88:63,64 「他們在擊打的時候,天色漸漸昏暗,約書亞在眾人面前說:日頭阿、你要停在基遍.月亮阿、你要止在亞雅崙谷,直等國民向敵人報仇。耶和華聽了約書亞的聲音,於是日頭在空中停留,靜止了六又三十分鍾,月亮也止住,不急速下落、約有一日之久。」 JohnPratt.com

308 CEV

309 以西結書 32:7b

310 創世記1:15, 以賽亞書30:26, 馬可福音13:24

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Part Two: The System of Visible Creation

IV: Celestial Bodies──Chapter 21: The Greater and Lesser Light

Sol and Luna we call them. The sun and the moon. Other cultures have their names for them, and other religions have worship dedicated to them. I prefer to call them the “Greater Light” and the “Lesser Light” as Elohim YHVH called them in Genesis. They probably have proper names, I’m sure… God gave them a pretty big job so He’s going to name them, right? Of course. Ethan, the writer of Psalm 89, says: “Moon” the way his contemporaries, historians, and those who came after him say it: “Yah-wrea-achk” or “yaw-ray’-akh” or “yareach” or “ֵיָרֵחַ ”.  I only bring up Ethan because he doesn’t get enough credit, really. Plus, just like Heman, he’s one of the little guys in the great Bible hall of writers.1

It’s interesting. In the book of Job, we see mention of the sun. Bildad refers to it by its proper name: “Shemesh”2 while Job refers to it as both “The Light”3 and “The Itch.”4 It seems that when Job bemoans his position in life, the great light becomes troublesome. Samuel, when writing the book of Judges, also refers to the sun as “The Itch.”5 I still find it quite amusing.6 But let’s dig in a little deeper than just amusement. The greater issue is, these systems of visible creation declare God’s handiwork.7 His majesty is overwhelming. The sun is overwhelming. And quite literally, the sun is over us. Overhead. Over 25 times in the book of Ecclesiastes it tells us so.8 The sun is of great power. Besides the firmament, I cannot think of any tangible thing that is so powerful. Water, sky, earth don’t compare to the awesome power of the sun. It’s amazing. They call it: “Earth’s Closest Star” but I call it: “The only great light.” There are no stars in the heavens that are as big as Shemesh. It alone rules the day, just as Yareach rules the night. “There is one glory of the sun, and another glory of the moon, and another glory of the stars: for one star differeth from another star in glory.”9

Joshua had power over the sun and the moon when the Lord fought for them in battle against Gibeon. “Then spake Joshua to the LORD in the day when the LORD delivered up the Amorites before the children of Israel, and he said in the sight of Israel, Sun, stand thou still upon Gibeon; and thou, Moon, in the valley of Ajalon. And the sun stood still, and the moon stayed, until the people had avenged themselves upon their enemies. Is not this written in the book of Jasher? So the sun stood still in the midst of heaven, and hasted not to go down, about a whole day.”10 It is possible then, for the workers of the Lord, who are doing His will, to have power over these two objects. For the Lord was already fighting for them in the battle.11 For God gave man dominion over the earth.12 Joshua just took God at His word, and look at the results. Not only did the sun stand still, but the moon did the same.

Later, during the reign of King Hezekiah, Isaiah went to him and confronted him about his wickedness. Hezekiah wept bitterly and Isaiah said: “This shall be the sign to you from the LORD, that the LORD will do this thing that he has promised: Behold, I will make the shadow cast by the declining sun on the dial of Ahaz turn back ten steps.” So the sun turned back on the dial the ten steps by which it had declined.”13 The earth didn’t move, as was recorded by scripture, but the shadow of the sun turned backwards ten steps on the sundial. The sun moved backwards because Isaiah asked God. Both of these records are so astounding that it is suggested that they were flukes and misinterpretations. But then why was each instance recorded twice? Joshua wants to make sure we understand this and says that it is recorded in the book of Jasher, and it is indeed found in Jasher 88:63,6414

Though the book of Jasher never made it into the canon of the Protestant Bible… Indeed the whole work was never found in its entirety… It is of extreme historical curiosity. So, even if we are to rebuff it as “Not scripturally accurate because of two or more witnesses” we cannot say this about the sun moving backwards for Hezekiah, for is recorded in both the book of Isaiah as well as 2 Kings 20. Here we see verses 9-11 and they tell us the story again. “Isaiah replied, “The LORD will prove to you that he will keep his promise. Will the shadow made by the setting sun on the stairway go forward ten steps or back ten steps?” “It’s normal for the sun to go forward,” Hezekiah answered. “But how can it go back?” Isaiah prayed, and the LORD made the shadow go back ten steps on the stairway built for King Ahaz.”15

That these greater and lesser lights, created by God, were subject to man’s decree is miraculous. But that is not the whole of the matter, merely let us take that as an aside and discover the whole of the matter of the sun and the moon over this earth. These things we must establish. That the sun is above the earth, and at all times, above all the earth. It is a dynamic thought that the sun is over the earth and that the earth does not spin to meet the sun at some points, while others have no sun over them. God speaks to us about this in the horrific prophecy about Egypt in Ezekiel 32. Verse 7 speaks about the sun. “I will cover the sun with a cloud, and the moon will not give its light.”16 Not only does the moon cease to create its own light but the sun is covered in clouds. The moon, emitting her own light, may have missed you entirely. Let me back up and say it quickly. A miracle in itself, for the moon has her own light and is not a reflection of the sun.17 I was always taught that the moon reflected the light of the sun. But as the Bible teaches us, the moon is called the “Lesser light” for a reason and not the “Lesser Mirror.”

Footnotes

1 Psalm 88:1a Heman the poet writes a really cool poem that the Sons of Korah come along and put to some dance music. True story. Verse 11 contains a word that will come up again later in the book, probably in Chapter 32.

2 Job 8:16

3 Job 31:26

4 Job 9:7

5 Judges 8:13, 14:18

6 See chapter 8 for more of my amusement on this name.

7 Psalms 19:1

8 Ecc 1:3, Ecc 1:9, Ecc 1:14, Ecc 2:11, Ecc 2:17, Ecc 2:18, Ecc 2:19,

Ecc 2:20, Ecc 2:22, Ecc 3:16, Ecc 4:1, Ecc 4:3, Ecc 4:7, Ecc 4:15, Ecc

5:13, Ecc 5:18, Ecc 6:1, Ecc 6:12, Ecc 8:9, Ecc 8:15, Ecc 8:17, Ecc 9:3,

Ecc 9:6, Ecc 9:9, Ecc 9:11, Ecc 9:13, Ecc 10:5

9 1 Corinthians 15:41 KJV

10 Joshua 10:12,13 KJV

11 Joshua 10:11b KJV “…that the LORD cast down great stones from heaven upon them unto Azekah, and they died…”

12 Genesis 1:28a KJV “And God blessed them, and God said unto them, Be fruitful, and multiply, and replenish the earth, and subdue it…”

13 Isaiah 38 7,8 ESV

14 Jasher 88:63,64 “And when they were smiting, the day was declining toward evening, and Joshua said in the sight of all the people, Sun, stand thou still upon Gibeon, and thou moon in the valley of Ajalon, until the nation shall have revenged itself upon its enemies. And the Lord hearkened to the voice of Joshua, and the sun stood still in the midst of the heavens, and it stood still six and thirty moments, and the moon also stood still and hastened not to go down a whole day.” JohnPratt.com

15 CEV

16 Ezekiel 32:7b BSB

17 Genesis 1:15, Isaiah 30:26, Mark 13:24

──Biblical Cosmology by Pauly Hart
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