介紹──Introduction

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6W和良好的解釋學

在我年輕的時候,我被教導要學會在任何情況下使用「6W」來傳遞信息。雖然不是所有的 「W」,但我們可以很容易地推測出,這個簡單的文字技巧確實有助於最嚴謹的事實轉述者:誰、什麼、為什麼、何時、何地、如何。熟悉「5個10W」的大多數人可能已經注意到,我在列表中加入了「哪裡」。

這是故意的,而且適合於推斷,如果有人願意在自己的時間裡這樣做的話。我們瞭解到,在所有的邏輯實例中,我們被迫向所有可能希望瞭解所有事實的人轉達這些數據集。誰參與其中。發生了什麼。為什麼會發生。發生的時間。在哪裡發生的。它是如何發生的。無論發生了什麼,都需要被闡述,對於這份清單,我現在和以前都很感激。

眼前的主題是這樣的。《聖經》中的宇宙學。我們需要知道關於它的一切, 或者至少,我們能在聖經中找到的東西。

  • 誰創造了宇宙?是上帝。
  • 祂創造的是什麼?一切。
  • 祂為什麼創造它?為了祂的快樂。
  • 它是什麼時候創造的?不到6000年前。11
  • 它在哪裡被創造?在我們周圍。
  • 它是如何被創造的?在6天內,通過祂的話。12

這些都是我在這部作品中試圖建立的基本要素。我將從系統上、分類上和神學上這樣做…。這至少是一種嘗試。有的時候我會挑戰你。也會有我犯錯的時候。也會有那些時候我承認有一個或多個可能的解釋。這很好,很好。但是,在這個練習中,心要放在所有事情的真相上。真理是我們的目標。

良好的解釋學將在找出這些真理的過程中發揮作用。什麼是解釋學?它是解釋聖經的理論和方法。13我也會採用一種叫做 「訓詁學」的東西,在給出一個短語的時候使用逐字翻譯,或者在需要時將某些詞從希伯來語或希臘語翻譯成英語。當我們「深入」研究神的話語時,既需要好的解釋學,也需要好的訓詁學。眾所周知,14在研究聖經時,並非所有的聖經學者都對任何一件事有共識。我們將盡一切努力掌握所有可能的觀點,並找到最適合經文背景的觀點。

在我看來,在審視一個有問題的詞或短語時,有九個重要的關鍵是好的解釋學。它們如下。

  1. 聖靈
  2. 直接定義
  3. 語法的使用
  4. 周邊環境
  5. 歷史背景
  6. 邏輯
  7. 這個想法的先例
  8. 與其他經文的統一性
  9. 推斷和建議

在解釋經文的時候,還有一種手段是人們最熱衷提倡的。那就是 “Sola Scriptura”,它的意思是「只有聖經」──其背後的想法是「聖經解釋聖經」。如果我們像保羅寫的那樣相信:「聖經都是 神所默示的、〔或作凡 神所默示的聖經〕於教訓、督責、使人歸正、教導人學義、都是有益的.」1516,那麼我們就應該知道,神不能通過這些著作自相矛盾。我們將逐節研讀《聖經》中列出的幾個關鍵的重要段落,作為我們這個好神學的基礎。

有一項關於翻譯工作的研究引起了人們對這一點的關注。一位譯者在為愛斯基摩人翻譯聖經時發現,如果他把耶穌定義為「上帝的羔羊」,他們就不會理解這個詞的含義。他們從來沒有見過羔羊或山羊。他們知道的大多數四條腿的哺乳動物都比他們大得多。因此,譯者沒有採用逐字翻譯的方法,而是採用了動態等價的方法。他把這段文字翻譯成了「耶穌是上帝的海豹狗」。他們的眼睛一下子就被這個啟示打開了,馬上就明白了。 17

我們還必須注意,重要的是 「在門口檢查我們的教條」。我這樣說的意思很簡單,我將用一個比喻來描述它。比如說18,你在一個偏遠的原始部落長大,認為所有堅硬的東西都是石頭。你知道木頭有時也很硬,但石頭總是比木頭硬。你見過用石頭製作的工具,甚至自己也用過石頭工具,但你以前從未見過金屬。突然,在沒有任何警告的情況下,一把金屬斧頭從天而降,落在你的村莊裡。你必須扔掉你認為你知道的關於石頭和木頭的每一個範式,並以某種方式在你的新範式中為這個新事物騰出空間。這個新東西會引起分裂和解釋問題,直到村裡的長老們宣佈它是什麼,它從天而降背後的意義是什麼。

《聖經》中的宇宙學是一把金屬斧頭。相反,如果你能想像它,它是你當地五金店的整個工具區被丟到村子裡。它將難以掌握,難以消化,難以解釋,幾乎無法吞嚥。除非主神親自給你發話。我堅信,今天聖靈在地球上有活躍的力量。 我確信他豐富地居住在那些被他呼召成為他的人的心中。如果你在基督裡,你就知道,無論如何,聖靈會教導你所有的事情,讓你回憶起所有的事情,所以,只要有一顆願意和謙卑的心,你不明白的機會是零。

如果你是不幸的未重生者之一,那麼我告誡你要與你的創造者和解,那就是唯一神聖的、不可改變的智能設計者上帝。你應該重生,以便基督的靈可以使你的凡人身體復活,使你可以擁有生命,而且是更豐富的生命。正如經文所說:「凡求告主名的,必得救」。救恩是為了你,救恩是為了現在。耶穌愛你,並為你的生活制定了計劃 而且19很美好。

10 摘自亞裡士多德的《尼各馬科倫理學》。

11 瞭解猶太歷法》,內森-布什維克,Moznaim出版公司,1989年

12 創世記 第1章

13 《劍橋哲學詞典》(第二版)。奧迪,羅伯特,劍橋大學出版社。第377頁,1999 年

14 丁道爾神學院聖經解釋與應用閱覽室

15 我們知道,聖經是完美的,因為它是由上帝的話語和他的精神。-伊裡奈約公元120-203年又說:「弟兄們,有一位神,我們不承認他,而是從他那裡出來。聖潔的經文。因為想宣稱這個世界的智慧的人不能除非他閱讀哲學家的學說,否則就無法達到;因此,無論誰願意對上帝的虔誠,除了從聖經中可以學到,別無他法。」- 希波呂托斯 約170-235

16在提摩太后書3:16(KJV)中

17《聖經研究的終結》,Hector Avalos,2007年

18 借用了明顯的故事。N!xau in,”眾神一定是瘋了”,編劇和導演。Jamie Uys, 南非, Ster Kinekor, 1980年

19 羅馬書10:13

SUPPORT 支 持 (Pauly Hart) 

購買英文版 Buy the book online: Biblical Cosmology Paperback


Introduction:

The 6 W’s and good hermeneutics

I was taught, when I was younger, to learn to use the “6 W’s” in every instance when setting forth to relay information. They are not all W’s but we can easily surmise that this simple word-trick does help the most fastidious of fact-relayers. Who, what, why, when, where and how. Most of you familiar with the “5”1 W’s have likely noted that I have added “where” to the list. This is on purpose, and suitable for extrapolation, should one be so inclined to do so on their own time. We learn that, in all instances of logic, we are forced to relay these data-sets to all who may wish to know all of the facts. Who was involved. What happened.

Why it happened. When it happened. Where it happened. How it happened. Whatever happened, needed to be expounded upon, and for this list I am, and always have been grateful.

The subject at hand is this: Biblical Cosmology. We need to know all about it, or at least, what we can find in Scripture alone. Who created the cosmos? God did. What was it that He created? Everything. Why did He created it? For His pleasure. When was it created? Less than 6000 years ago.2 Where was it created? All around us. How was it created? In 6 days, by His words.3 These are the fundamentals that I will attempt to establish throughout this work. I will do so systematically, categorically, and theologically… This is the attempt at least. There will be times when I will challenge you. There will be times when I am wrong. There will be those times when I admit there is one or more possible explanations. That is fine and good. But the heart will be set on the truth of all matters in this exercise. Truth is our goal.

Good hermeneutics will come into play in finding out these truths. What are hermeneutics? It is the theory and methodology of Scriptural interpretation.4 Something called “exegesis” will also be employed by me to use the word-for-word translation of a phrase when it is given, or to translate certain words into English from Hebrew or Greek, when needed.5 Both good hermeneutics and good exegesis are needed when we take “deep-dives” into the Word of God. It is widely known and recognized that not all Bible scholars agree on any one thing when looking into Scripture. We will make all attempts to grasp all possible outlooks and find the one(s) most suitable for the context of the Scripture.

There are in my opinion nine important keys to good hermeneutics when looking at a word or phrase in question. They are as follows:

  1. The Holy Spirit
  2. Direct definition
  3. Usage of the syntax
  4. Surrounding context
  5. Historical background
  6. Logic
  7. Precedent for this idea
  8. Unity with other Scripture
  9. Inference and suggestion

There is another device that is most heartily promoted when it comes to interpreting scripture. That is the phrase: “Sola Scriptura” and it means: “Scripture alone” – with the idea behind it that “Scripture interprets scripture.”6 If we believe as Paul writes that “All scripture is given by inspiration of God, and is profitable for doctrine, for reproof, for correction, for instruction in righteousness”7 then we are to know that God cannot contradict Himself thru these writings. We will plow through, verse-by-verse, several key important passages listed in the Bible as our foundation for this good theology.

There is the study of a translation effort that draws attention to this point. It came to a translator, while working on the Bible for the Eskimo, that were he to define Jesus as the “Lamb of God” they would not understand what that phrase meant. They had never seen a lamb or a goat. Most four legged mammals they knew were much bigger than they were. So the translator, instead of using a word-for-word approach, used a dynamic equivalent approach. He translated the text to read: “Jesus is the seal-pup of God.” They had their eyes opened at once to this revelation and understood it right away.8

We must also note that it is important to “check our dogma at the door.” What I mean by this is simple, and I will use an analogy to describe it.9 Say, for instance, that you’ve grown up in a remote primitive tribe of people and believed that all things that are hard are stone. You know that wood sometimes is hard, but stone is always harder than wood. You’ve seen tools fashioned from stone, have even used stone tools yourself, but you’ve never seen metal before. Suddenly, and without warning, a metal axe falls from the sky and lands in your village. You must throw away every paradigm you thought you knew about stone and wood and somehow make room for this new thing in your new paradigm. This new thing will cause division and interpretation problems until the village elders make a proclamation about what it is and what was the meaning behind it falling from the sky.

Biblical cosmology is something of a metal axe. Rather, if you can imagine it, it is the entire tool section of your local hardware store dropped onto the village. It will be hard to grasp, uneasy to digest, difficult to interpret, and nigh impossible to swallow… Unless the Lord God Himself gives you utterance. I am firmly convinced of the present and active power of the Holy Spirit upon the earth today. I am convinced that He dwells richly in the hearts and minds of those whom He has called to be His own. If you are in Christ, you know that the Holy Spirit will teach you all things and bring all things back to your remembrance anyway, so, with a willing and humble heart, your chances of not understanding this are zero.

If you are one of the unfortunate un-reborn, then I admonish you to reconcile with your creator, the one holy and immutable intelligent designer God. It behooves you to become reborn so that the Spirit of Christ may quicken your mortal body and that you might have life, and life more abundantly. As Scripture says: “Anyone who calls on the name of the Lord, shall be saved.”10 Salvation is for you, salvation is for now. Jesus loves you and has a plan for your life… And it’s wonderful.

Footnotes

1 From Aristotle’s Nicomachean Ethics

2 Understanding the Jewish Calendar, Nathan Bushwick, Moznaim Pub Corp, 1989

3 Genesis, Chapter 1

4 The Cambridge Dictionary of Philosophy (2nd ed.). Audi, Robert, Cambridge University Press. p. 377, 1999

5 Biblical Interpretation and Application Reading Room, Tyndale Seminary

6 We know that the Scriptures are perfect, as being spoken by the Word of God and His Spirit. -Irenaeus c. A.D. 120-c. 203 Also, There is one God, whom we do not otherwise acknowledge, brethren, but out of the Sacred Scriptures. For as he, who would profess the wisdom of this world cannot otherwise attain it, unless he read the doctrines of the philosophers; so whosoever will exercise piety towards God, can learn it nowhere but from the Holy Scriptures. – Hippolytus c. 170-c.235

7 in 2 Timothy 3:16 (KJV)

8 The End of Bible Studies, Hector Avalos, 2007

9 Borrowing from the obvious story of: N!xau in, “The Gods Must Be Crazy,” Written and Directed by: Jamie Uys, South Africa, Ster Kinekor, 1980

10 Romans 10:13

──Biblical Cosmology by Pauly Hart
Permission for VineMedia to use

SUPPORT – Pauly Hart

Buy the book online: Biblical Cosmology Paperback


見證

奪回(三)──陳影音 Esther

八歲開始偷竊,十六歲開始吸毒;四次牢獄,接近二十多年的偷竊習慣及毒癮…人的盡頭、神的開始…

teddy hung

丟棄萬事 得著基督──FORMER MAFIA BOSS BECAME A FOLLOWER OF JESUS CHRIST

黑社會大佬信耶穌?當神帶他去了地獄與天堂,便震撼地起了天翻地覆的改變…在人不能,在神凡事都能…

支 持 我 們

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